This is a conceptual and theoretical paper that aims to examine the advantages and benefits of distributed forms of leadership for school improvement. In addition, it examines the difficulties and barriers that make the distributed leadership difficult to implement in schools. This paper is based on the review of different theoretical and empirical studies related to leadership and school effectiveness and school improvement. The evidences from literature indicate that distributed leadership has a significant effect on school effectiveness and school improvement. It has positive effect on students’ outcomes and the distribution of leadership sources throughout the school community more likely improve the students’ learning outcomes. It has also positive effect on teachers’ self-efficacy and levels of morale and enhances the satisfaction of teachers. The morale level of teachers improved where teachers frequently involved in decision making related to the school development and improvement. The main difficulties and barriers with distributed leadership are: hierarchical norms, leaders’ expectations and attitudes, difficulties connected with evaluation and ambiguities surrounding the evaluation process. These difficulties may be overcome with the combination of strong interpersonal skills on the part of the ‘teacher leader’ and a school culture that encourages change and leadership from teachers.
|Keywords:||Leadership, Distributed Leadership, School Improvement, Advantages and Benefits, Difficulties and Barriers|
Executive District Officer for Literacy, Department of Education, Government of the Punjab, Ninkana Sahib, Punjab, Pakistan
Headmaster, Ministry of Education, Government of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
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