Transformational Leadership and Satisfaction in Sports: Examination of the Influence of Leadership Substitute Variables

By Aminuddin Yusof and Parilah M. Shah.

Published by The Organization Collection

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Using Kerr and Jermier’s (1978) leadership substitutes theory as framework, this study examined the extent to which situational variables moderate the relationship between transformational leadership behaviours and coaches’ job satisfaction at NCAA Division III institutions. Data for this study were collected from a national sample of 308 coaches from NCAA Division III institutions. The Transformational Leadership Behaviour Inventory developed by Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman, and Fetter (1990) was used to measure coaches' perception of the transformational leadership behaviours of their athletic directors. Coaches’ perception regarding the existence of situational variables was measured by using the Substitutes for Leadership Questionnaire developed by Kerr and Jermier (1978). The job satisfaction of coaches was measured by using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (Weiss, Dawis, England & Lofquist, 1967). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. The results suggest that there is a significant relationship between transformational leadership behaviours of athletic directors and coaches' job satisfaction at NCAA Division III institutions. It was discovered that situational variables such as coaching ability, organisational formalization, and group cohesion were significantly related with coaches’ job satisfaction. Professional orientation was discovered to be a leadership neutralizer, while group cohesion to be a substitute of transformational leadership behaviours. It was concluded that transformational leadership behaviours of athletic directors have a direct relationship with coaches’ job satisfaction in the absence of a strong leadership substitute or neutralizer. However, in the presence of leadership substitute and neutralizer, transformational leadership behaviours influence coaches’ job satisfaction indirectly, through the moderating effects of the substitute and neutralizer.

Keywords: Transformational Leadership, Leadership Substitutes, Job Satisfaction

The International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp.19-30. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 606.555KB).

Dr. Aminuddin Yusof

Lecturer, Sports Academy, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Dr. Aminuddin Yusof is an Associate Professor at the Faculty of Educational Studies, University Putra Malaysia. In 2004, he was appointed as the director of the university’s Sports Academy. Dr. Aminuddin Yusof received his tertiary education in the United States; his B.A. from Wilmington College, his M.A. from University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, and his Ph.D. from the University of Connecticut. Dr. Aminuddin has been actively involved in research and professional services in the areas of Sports Management, Sports Industry and Sports Tourism. In addition to his publications in national and international sports science and physical education journals and others, he has made invited and keynote presentations at various professional meetings such as the Malaysian Association for Physical Education, Sports Science and Fitness (PPJSKM) and International Council for Health Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (ICHPER) conferences. His professional services include, but are not limited to, as a program evaluator for the Malaysian National Accreditation Board (LAN), a member for Malaysian National Committee on Sports Science Guidelines, and as External Examiner, Sports Science Graduate & Undergraduate Programs for several Malaysian universities.

Dr. Parilah M. Shah

Lecturer, Faculty of Education, National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

Dr. Parilah M. Shah is a lecturer at the Faculty of Education, National University of Malaysia. She obtained her M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Connecticut, USA. Her research interests are second language acquisition, reading, teaching of English to speakers of other languages, and bilingual-bicultural education. She has presented several papers at both the national and international levels and has several publications in areas related to second language acquisition and learning.


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